State supreme court
SPACE LAW

International Satellite Communications Law (Law 784) (1 credit hour) The branch of space law which is focused most on practical and commercial applications without a doubt is the satellite communications sector. The present class will address the specific legal regimes dealing with satellite communications law in particular at the international level. Thus, it will address the role of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in allocating, allotting and assigning frequency spectrum and orbital slots/orbits, and the role of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in regulating the international trade in satellite communication services. Also, the unique roles of the international satellite organizations INTELSAT and INMARSAT, especially since their transition to privatized companies kicked off, will be addressed. Finally, other, more regional developments in the USA, Europe and elsewhere will be briefly touched upon. A TWEN site will be used instead of a casebook. This class is available to online LL.M. students.

Export Control Law: International Traffic in Arms Regulations (Law 734) (1 credit hour) Commercial space, telecommunications and cyber industries are global industries involving large amounts of international trade. Accordingly, export control regimes, both domestic and international, have a large impact on these industries.  The US export control regime, particularly the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), is of particular significance given the leading role of the United States in space, telecommunications and cyber industries.  This course will provide an extensive examination of ITAR, the Export Administration Act and related Executive Orders, as well as some discussion of international export control regimes influencing US laws and regulations, and the ongoing efforts to reform the US system. This class is available to online LL.M. students.

National Security Space Law (Law 747)(1 credit hour) Course will address the national security and military aspects of space law and policy, including arms control, intelligence gathering, weaponization, rules on use of force as applied to space activities, and security and risk of space assets. REQUIRED COURSE.This class is available to online LL.M. students.

Space Law (Law 748/G) (2 credit hours) Course will provide a basic overview of space law with primary emphasis on the civilian and commercial dimensions of space law and policy (including civilian government space, satellite launch, insurance, space tourism, remote sensing, and space traffic management). Course coverage will include the five major international treaties dealing directly with space (the Outer Space Treaty, Liability Convention, Registration Convention, Rescue and Return Agreement, and Moon Treaty) and the application of these Cold-War era treaties to modern space activities, "soft law" instruments attempting to regulate space, U.S. national legislation addressing space issues, as well as the mechanisms for the creation and negotiation of international space law, including the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, to address new or growing problems such as orbital debris. The course will include guest lecturers from the military and private sector. REQUIRED COURSE. This class is available to online LL.M. students.

National Space Legislation (1 credit hour) In view especially of the increasing commercialization and privatization of space activities and their applications there is an increasing need at the national level to implement the international space treaties and some other international space law, notably by means of the establishment of national space legislation, including licensing regimes dealing for example with liability issues, or other control mechanisms. Thus, the course will discuss the various ways in which countries across the world have chosen, or are choosing, to implement relevant international requirements as well as to assert national space policies by means of such national law. A prominent place in this context will be taken by discussion of national US law on such activities as satellite communications, satellite remote sensing and space tourism. This course is only open to those that have followed the Space law class of the first semester. This class is available to online LL.M. students.

European Regulation of Space and Telecommunications (1 credit hour) This course deals with two inter-related topics. The first relates to the interaction between the EC/EU and the European Space Agency in particular in the development of European space activities and policies, with due attention to such other players as EUTELSAT and EUMETSAT, up to and including the discussions on their institutional integration. Also the development of such trans-European space projects as Galileo and the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (G0ES) project will pass scrutiny. The second deals with the way in which the EC has, since roughly 20 years, started to apply its general legislative and regulatory competencies in the area of the most prominent sector of commercial space which is satellite communications, as a key are within the larger area of telecommunications. Here, the gradual development of an Internal Market for satcom services will provide the focal point. This course is only open to those that have taken the Introduction into EC law. This class is available to online LL.M. students.

Introduction into EU Law (1 credit hour) This course will provide an overview of the development of European Community law from the origins of the EEC, right through the latest developments such as the establishment of the European Union and the current transition from the failed Constitutional Treaty to the new Reform Treaty. In doing so, the unique character of the EC/EU as a half-way house between a classical intergovernmental organization and a federal state will be explained, as well as the respective roles of the Council, the European Commission, the European Parliament and the European Court of Justice in the process of law-making - Regulations, Directives and Decisions - at the European level. Major substantive elements of EC law, such as the freedom of movement of goods, services, person and capital and the competition regime will also be briefly discussed. The course is open to anyone interested in a fundamental understanding of EC law, whether with a view to space activities or more broadly speaking. This class is available to online LL.M. students.

International Satellite Communications Law (Law 784) (1 credit hour) The branch of space law which is focused most on practical and commercial applications without a doubt is the satellite communications sector. The present class will address the specific legal regimes dealing with satellite communications law in particular at the international level. Thus, it will address the role of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in allocating, allotting and assigning frequency spectrum and orbital slots/orbits, and the role of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in regulating the international trade in satellite communication services. Also, the unique roles of the international satellite organizations INTELSAT and INMARSAT, especially since their transition to privatized companies kicked off, will be addressed. Finally, other, more regional developments in the USA, Europe and elsewhere will be briefly touched upon. This class is available to online LL.M. students.

Space & Satellite Business Law (1 credit hour) U.S. Space policy has favored increasing commercialization for three decades.  Over 200 commercial space launches have occurred since the first one in 1989.  New commercial activities, including ferrying cargo to and from the International Space Station and performing research and experiments for the private sector on the ISS, are becoming routine. Soon human transportation and asteroid mining will be part of the commercial space landscape.  This course will review and examine the history of Presidential space policies regarding space commercialization.  It also will explore the work of all key federal agencies charged with licensing and regulating the commercial space transportation and satellite industries.  The course will address the statutes that give these agencies this authority and the rules that the agencies administer and enforce.  The role of NASA also will be explored as the non-regulatory agency that could have a significant impact on the success of private sector-led commercial space ventures.  The largest portion of the course will focus on agreements that form relationships in the commercial space industry.  These include Launch Service Agreements, Satellite Purchase Agreements, Transponder Sale/Lease Agreements, Non-Disclosure Agreements, Satellite Launch and In-Orbit Insurance contracts, and Hosted Payload Agreements.  The course also will look at new contract forms being used by NASA in its growing role as a consumer of commercial space services, and at the agreements that set forth the relationship between the launch site operator and launch vehicle operator.  The course concludes with students engaging in a simulation of a condensed commercial space business transaction – from business plan to launch.   This course is available to online LLM students.

 

TELECOMMUNICATIONS & CYBER LAW

Cyber Law (Law 681/G) (2 cr hr) This course will explore a range of legal issues in cyber domain, including cyber security, privacy, network ownership and access, private versus public regulation of cyberspace, speech in cyberspace, content as property and intellectual property in cyberspace, jurisdiction over cyberspace activities, liability of intermediaries, state and local regulation of cyberspace, and the interrelationship between technology and law as mechanisms of regulation.  The course will include two class sessions with guest lecturers from the Washington, D.C. legal and policy community. This class is available to online LL.M. students.

Domestic Telecommunications Law (Law 726/G) (3 credit hours) This course addresses the legal framework applied in the United States to most wireline and wireless communications (other than the internet, which is addressed in the Cyberlaw Course). The covered media include cable television, landline telephone, broadcast and satellite radio and television, and mobile technologies. The course will explore the economic, technological, national security, and statutory and constitutional issues that have shaped these media, as well as how these "persistent" issues have evolved over time. We will explore the current policy and academic debates, including spectrum policy and frameworks for regulating similar services offered by different media platforms. We will place particular emphasis on the pervasive role of law, and how the media we use have been fundamentally shaped by legal decisions. More broadly, we explore how law affects the distribution of political and economic power in the U.S. by determining who can speak to whom, for what purpose. REQUIRED COURSE. This class is available to online LL.M. students.

International Telecommunications Law: Cyber and Other High Technology Warfare and Crimes (Law 756/G; 3 cr hr) This course focuses on international regimes for regulating telecommunications and for regulating global cyberwarfare and cybersecurity issues. Regarding telecommunications, we study satellite, phone, and Internet legal regimes, notably through the International Telecommunications Union and World Trade Organization; we also explore some issues particular to developing nations. For cybersecurity, we explore legal instruments governing international cybercrime and cyberterrorism by individuals and cyberwarfare by nations. We explore issues ranging from how the laws of armed conflict apply to cyberattacks to whether the president has unilateral authority to engage in certain cyber-actions. Grade based on exam. REQUIRED COURSE. This class is available to online LL.M. students.

National Security Law (Law 719; 3 cr hr) This course examines international and U.S. law relevant to the handling of national security matters. On the domestic level, we will study the allocation of power under the Constitution between Congress and the President with respect to war powers and will assess the role of the courts as a check on the political branches in this area, particularly as it relates to ongoing efforts to fight terrorism. Domestic statutory authorities, especially the War Powers Resolution, will also be covered. To illustrate and better understand some of the challenges confronting individual liberties in time of war, several contemporary U.S. national security problems will be examined, particularly the military detention of suspected terrorists and their trial by military commissions. Other controversial U.S. national security initiatives, such as covert intelligence operations and the targeted killing of suspected terrorists, will be assessed in the context of both domestic and international law. The second half of the course focuses on international law governing the use of force, conflict management and collective security arrangements. Special attention will be given to the U.N. Charter, the doctrine of self defense, arguments set forth as justifications for the unilateral use of force, intervention in internal conflicts, and the institutional framework for collective efforts to maintain international peace and security, including peacekeeping operations and peace enforcement actions. The course concludes by examining national security challenges presented by the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Note, this class is NOT available to online LL.M. students.

National Security Space Law (Law 747; 1 cr hr) This course will address the national security and military aspects of space law and policy, including arms control, intelligence gathering, weaponization, and rules on the use of force as applied to space activities. REQUIRED COURSE. This class is available to online LL.M. students.

Spectrum Management Law and Policy (Law 724) (1-3 credits) This course will cover the basic governing law and the policy behind the primary spectrum management debates. It will include coverage of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)/NTIA split jurisdiction over spectrum, Title III of the Communications Act, licensing issues including auctions, licensed v. unlicensed activities, cognitive radion and special spectrum considerations behind broadcast and satellite. This class is available to online LL.M. students.

OTHER RELATED COURSES

Arms Control (Law 760; 2 cr hr) This course will examine the historical, political and strategic foundations of contemporary arms control and disarmament regimes and will evaluate the nature and effectiveness of supporting legal frameworks.  Specific topics will include: prohibited weapons under international law; agreements banning various conventional weapons; the successes and failures of the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Biological Weapons Convention; nuclear arms limitation agreements and underlying nuclear deterrence doctrines; the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Agreement, and; future arms control initiatives related to cyber warfare, space and emerging new military technologies. Note, this class is NOT available to online students currently.

International Law (Law 640/G) (3 credit hours) This course explores issues of public and private international law with an emphasis on public international law. Specific topics covered include the nature and sources of international law rules related to making and interpreting treaties, the relationship of international law to U.S. domestic law, how international law enters the U.S. courts, limits on a nation's ability to legislate and enforce laws outside its territory, immunity of foreign nations and their enterprises from jurisdiction of another nation's courts, methods of international dispute settlement (from the World Court to private commercial arbitration), rules relating to the treatment of another nation's citizens (e.g. protection of investments from expropriation ) and rules regarding the use of military force as well as tribunals for war crimes (such as the international criminal court). REQUIRED COURSE. This class is available to online LL.M. students.

International Telecommunications Law: Cyber and Other High Technology Warfare and Crimes (Law 756/G; 3 cr hr) This course focuses on international regimes for regulating telecommunications and for regulating global cyberwarfare and cybersecurity issues. Regarding telecommunications, we study satellite, phone, and Internet legal regimes, notably through the International Telecommunications Union and World Trade Organization; we also explore some issues particular to developing nations. For cybersecurity, we explore legal instruments governing international cybercrime and cyberterrorism by individuals and cyberwarfare by nations. We explore issues ranging from how the laws of armed conflict apply to cyberattacks to whether the president has unilateral authority to engage in certain cyber-actions. Grade based on exam. REQUIRED COURSE. This class is available to online LL.M. students.

Administrative Law (Law 633/G) (3 credit hours) The origin and growth of the administrative process, the development of administrative law and its impact upon traditional legal institutions, analysis of the types of federal and state administrative tribunals, their powers and functions, problems of administrative procedure, judicial and other controls upon the administrative process, special vertical studies of selected state and federal agencies. This class is sometimes available to online LL.M. student and sometimes not. Please check with the Executive Director.

Electronic Commerce (Law 613) (3 credit hours) This course will study a variety of issues arising in electronic commerce. The issues in the course fall within three broad areas. First, we will examine some of the basic practices for setting up a business in cyberspace and consider issues related to protecting commercial identity online. Second, we will consider privacy issues associated with the online environment. Finally, we will examine the application of various legal in the online environment including, the laws governing the sale of goods, payments, secured transactions, licensing, taxation and jurisdiction. A variety of state, federal and international legislation and directives will be considered including: the Communications Decency Act, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, the USA Patriot Act of 2001, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, digital signature statutes and the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act. There are no prerequisites for the course. Participation on UNL's Blackboard will be required. This class is sometimes available to online LL.M. student and sometimes not. Please check with the Executive Director.

International Trade Law (Law 671/G) (3 credit hours) This course explores government regulation of international trade and the interaction between national and international rules governing trade. Specific topics covered include U.S. constitutional issues regarding the regulation of trade by the U.S. federal and state governments, regulations regarding the importation of goods into the United States (e.g. classifying, valuing, and determining the origin of imported goods), barriers to U.S. exports, rules of the GATT and NAFTA that seek to eliminate or limit such barriers, U.S. unfair trade laws (i.e. laws designed to protect U.S. businesses from imports that have an "unfair" advantage), and the institutional and dispute settlement rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO). A visitor from the Washington D.C. trade policy community may be invited to speak. Past speakers include: U.S. Senators Chuck Hagel and Ben Nelson, Congressman Doug Bereuter and the Honorable Abner Mikva. This class is available to online LL.M. students.

American Foreign Affairs Law & Policy Seminar (Law 750/G) (3 credit hours) This seminar will explore structural/organizational issues (e.g., separation of powers, federalism) related to U.S. foreign policymaking as well as U.S. foreign policy in a number of substantive areas, such as the war on terror, non-proliferation, trade, space and telecommunications, foreign aid, global warming, relations with the European Union, relations with Latin America, etc. Previous enrollment in an international law course, although not required, will be useful background for students in the seminar.(Schaefer)(Enrollment Limit - 12; Professor Often Increases Limit at His Discretion to 16) This class is available to online LL.M. students. 

International Business Transactions (Law 673/G) (3 credit hours) This course primarily covers the private contractual aspects of international trade and some public (government regulation) aspects as well. Specific topics covered include the role of counsel in international business, international sales contracts and the Convention on the International Sale of Goods, use of distributors and agents, investing overseas, private international dispute resolution, choice of forum and choice of law clauses, international commercial arbitration, enforcement of foreign arbitral awards, extraterritorial legislation, responses to fairly and unfairly traded imports, and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. This class is available to online LL.M. students.